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For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: In 1854, English builder William B.
Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing.
Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure.
Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not.
Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete.
One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871.
Typical concrete mixes have high resistance to compressive stresses (about 4,000 psi (28 MPa)); however, any appreciable tension (e.g., due to bending) will break the microscopic rigid lattice, resulting in cracking and separation of the concrete.
Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire and reintroduced in the mid to late 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology.
American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs, Floors, and Walking Surfaces where he stated his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete.
For this reason, typical non-reinforced concrete must be well supported to prevent the development of tension.
If a material with high strength in tension, such as steel, is placed in concrete, then the composite material, reinforced concrete, resists not only compression but also bending and other direct tensile actions.Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building.Without reinforcement, constructing modern structures with concrete material would not be possible.The use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was highly promoted within the U. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry.